Forebygging og konsekvenser ved barnemishandling

Infografikk som viser sammenheng mellom risikofaktorer, barnemishandling, mediasjoner og konsekvenser.

Infografikk om forebygging og konsekvenser av barnemishandling



Appiah-Kusi, E. et al. (2017). Do cognitive schema mediate the association between childhood trauma and being at ultra-high risk for psychosis? Journal of Psychiatric Research 88, 89-96. Doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2017.01.003.

Barth, R. P. (2009). Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect with Parent Training: Evidence and Opportunities. The Future of Children 19(2), 95-118. Doi: 10.1353/foc.0.0031.

Brown, S., Mitchell, T. B., Fite, P. J., & Bortolato, M. (2017). Impulsivity as a moderator of the associations between child maltreatment types and body mass index. Child Abuse & Neglect 67, 137-146. Doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2017.02.029.

Burns, E. E., Jackson, J. L., & Harding, H. G. (2010). Child Maltreatment, Emotion Regulation, and Posttraumatic Stress: The Impact of Emotional Abuse. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma 19(8), 801-819. Doi: 10.1080/10926771.2010.522947.

Burns, E. E., Fischer, S., Jackson, J. L., & Harding, H. G. (2012). Deficits in emotion regulation mediate the relationship between childhood abuse and later eating disorder symptoms. Child Abuse & Neglect 36(1), 32-39. Doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2011.08.005.

Cadzow, S. P., Armstrong, K. L., & Fraser, J. A. (1999). Stressed parents with infants: reassessing physical abuse risk factors. Child Abuse & Neglect 23(9), 845-853. Doi: 10.1016/S0145-2134(99)00063-0.

Cappelleri, J. C., Eckenrode, J., & Powers, J. L. (1993). The epidemiology of child abuse: findings from the Second National Incidence and Prevalence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect. American Journal of Public Health 83(11), 1622-1624. Doi: 10.2105/AJPH.83.11.1622

Chaffin, M., Kelleher, K., & Hollenberg, J. (1996). Onset of physical abuse and neglect: Psychiatric, substance abuse, and social risk factors from prospective community data. Child Abuse & Neglect 20(3), 191-203. Doi: 10.1016/S0145-2134(95)00144-1.

Cohen, L. R., Hien, D. A., & Batchelder, S. (2008). The Impact of Cumulative Maternal Trauma and Diagnosis on Parenting Behavior. Child Maltreatment 13(1), 10.1177/1077559507310045.

Connelly, C. & Straus, M. (1992). Mother's age and risk for physical abuse. Child Abuse & Neglect 16(5), 709-718. Doi: 10.1016/0145-2134(92)90107-3.

Crow, T., Cross, D., Powers, A., & Bradley, B. (2014). Emotion dysregulation as a mediator between childhood emotional abuse and current depression in a low-income African-American sample. Child Abuse & Neglect 38(10), 1590-1598. Doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2014.05.015.

DiLillo, D., Tremblay, G. C., & Peterson, L. (2000). Linking childhood sexual abuse and abusive parenting: the mediating role of maternal anger. Child Abuse & Neglect 24(6), 767-779. Doi: 10.1016/S0145-2134(00)00138-1.

Doidge, J. C., Higgins, D. J., Delfabbro, P., & Segal, L. (2017). Risk factors for child maltreatment in an Australian population-based birth cohort. Child Abuse & Neglect 64, 47-60. Doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2016.12.002.

Ethier, L. S., Couture, G., & Lacharité, C. (2004). Risk Factors Associated with the Chronicity of High Potential for Child Abuse and Neglect. Journal of Family Violence 19(1), 13-24. Doi: 10.1023/B:JOFV.0000011579.18333.c9.

Feinson, M. C. & Hornik-Lurie, T. (2016). Binge eating & childhood emotional abuse: The mediating role of anger. Appetite 105, 487-493. Doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.05.018.

Finkelhor, D. & Baron, L. (1986). Risk Factors for Child Sexual Abuse. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 1(1), 43-71. Doi: 10.1177/088626086001001004.

Gracie, A. et al. (2007). The association between traumatic experience, paranoia and hallucinations: a test of the predictions of psychological models. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 116(4), 280-289. Doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0447.2007.01011.x.

Hamilton, J. L. et al. (2013). Emotional Maltreatment, Peer Victimization, and Depressive versus Anxiety Symptoms During Adolescence: Hopelessness as a Mediator. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology 42(3), 332-347. Doi: 10.1080/15374416.2013.777916.

Hardy, A. et al. (2016). Psychological Mechanisms Mediating Effects Between Trauma and Psychotic Symptoms: The Role of Affect Regulation, Intrusive Trauma Memory, Beliefs, and Depression. Schizophrenia Bulletin: The Journal of Psychoses and Related Disorders 42(1), 34-43. Doi: 10.1093/schbul/sbv175.

Jenkins, P. E., Meyer, C. & Blissett, J. M. (2013). Childhood Abuse and Eating Psychopathology: The Mediating Role of Core Beliefs. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma 22(3), 248-261. Doi: 10.1080/10926771.2013.741665.

Jones, L. et al. (2012). Prevalence and risk of violence against children with disabilities: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. The Lancet 380(9845), 899-907. Doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60692-8.

Kratzer, L. et al. (2018). Mindfulness and pathological dissociation fully mediate the association of childhood abuse and PTSD symptomatology. European Journal of Trauma & Dissociation 2(1), 5-10. Doi: 10.1016/j.ejtd.2017.06.004.

Lamis, D. A. et al. (2017). Intimate Partner Sexual Coercion Mediates the Childhood Sexual Abuse–Suicidal Ideation Link Among African American Women. Journal of Black Psychology 43(3), 305-324. Doi: 10.1177/0095798416644885.

Langevin, R., Hébert, M, & Cossette, L. (2015). Emotion regulation as a mediator of the relation between sexual abuse and behavior problems in preschoolers. Child Abuse & Neglect 46, 16-26. Doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2015.02.001.

Lee, M. (2015). Emotional abuse in childhood and suicidality: The mediating roles of re-victimization and depressive symptoms in adulthood. Child Abuse & Neglect 44, 130-139. Doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2015.03.016.

Li, N., Zabin, L. S., & Ahmed, S. (2015). The Childhood Sexual Abuse Among Youth in Three Asian Cities: Taipei, Shanghai, and Hanoi. Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health 27(2), 1566-1577. Doi: 10.1177/1010539512471968.

Madu, S. N. (2002). Perceived Parental Disorders as Risk Factors for Child Sexual, Physical and Emotional Abuse among High School Students in the Northern Province, South Africa. IFE Psychologia 10(1), 28-43. Doi: 10.4314/ifep.v10i1.23472.

Maguire-Jack, K. & Font, S. A. (2017). Community and Individual Risk Factors for Physical Child Abuse and Child Neglect: Variations by Poverty Status. Child Maltreatment 22(3), 215-226. Doi: 10.1177/1077559517711806.

Mansbach-Kleinfeld, I., Ifrah, A., Apter, A., & Farbstein, I. (2015). Child sexual abuse as reported by Israeli adolescents: Social and health related correlates. Child Abuse & Neglect 40, 68-80. Doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2014.11.014.

Matos, M., Pinto-Gouveia, J., & Gilbert, P. (2012). The Effect of Shame and Shame Memories on Paranoid Ideation and Social Anxiety. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy 20(4), 334-349. Doi: 10.1002/cpp.1766.

McCarthy-Jones, S. (2017). Is Shame Hallucinogenic? Frontiers in Psychology 8, 1310. Doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01310.

Meinck, F. et al. (2017). Emotional abuse of girls in Swaziland: prevalence, perpetrators, risk and protective factors and health outcomes. Journal of Global Health 7(1), 010410. Doi: 10.7189/jogh.07.010410.

Mersky, J. P., Berger, L. M., Reynolds, A. J., & Gromoske, A. N. (2009). Risk Factors for Child and Adolescent Maltreatment: A Longitudinal Investigation of a Cohort of Inner-City Youth. Child Maltreatment 14(1), 73-88. Doi: 10.1177/1077559508318399.

Milner, J. S. et al. (2010). Do trauma symptoms mediate the relationship between childhood physical abuse and adult child abuse risk? Child Abuse & Neglect 34(5), 332-344. Doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2009.09.017.

O’Mahen, H. A., Karl, A., Moberly, N., & Fedock, G. (2015). The association between childhood maltreatment and emotion regulation: Two different mechanisms contributing to depression? Journal of Affective Disorders 174, 287-295. Doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2014.11.028.

Oshri, A., Carlson, M. W., Kwon, J. A., Zeichner, A., & Wickrama, K. K. A. S. (2017). Developmental Growth Trajectories of Self-Esteem in Adolescence: Associations with Child Neglect and Drug Use and Abuse in Young Adulthood. Journal of Youth and Adolescence 46(1), 151-164. Doi: 10.1007/s10964-016-0483-5.

Panlilio, C. C., Harden, B. J., & Harring, J. (2018). School readiness of maltreated preschoolers and later school achievement: The role of emotion regulation, language, and context. Child Abuse & Neglect 75, 82-91. Doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2017.06.004.

Paredes, P. P. & Calvete, E. (2014). Cognitive Vulnerabilities as Mediators between Emotional Abuse and Depressive Symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 42(5), 743-753. Doi: 10.1007/s10802-013-9828-7.

Peltonen, K., Ellonen, N., Pösö, T., & Lucas, S. (2014). Mothers’ self-reported violence toward their children: A multifaceted risk analysis. Child Abuse & Neglect 38(12), 1923-1933. Doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2014.10.016.

Plaza, A. et al. (2014). Maladaptive Family Dysfunction and Parental Death as Risk Markers of Childhood Abuse in Women. The Spanish Journal of Psychology 17, E91. Doi: 10.1017/sjp.2014.94.

Qin, L. Z., Sun, Y. Y., Xia, W., Chen, S. F., & Zhang, H. Y. (2008). Risk factors for emotional abuse in 844 adolescents. Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics 10(2), 228-230.

Raes, P. & Hermans, D. (2008). On the mediating role of subtypes of rumination in the relationship between childhood emotional abuse and depressed mood: brooding versus reflection. Depression and Anxiety: The Official Journal of ADAA 25(12), 1067-1070. Doi: 10.1002/da.20447.

Rumm, P. D., Cummings, P., Krauss, M. R., Bell, M. A., & Rivara, F. P. (2000). Identified spouse abuse as a risk factor for child abuse. Child Abuse & Neglect 24(11), 1375-1381. Doi: 10.1016/S0145-2134(00)00192-7.

Sachs-Ericsson, N., Verona, E., Joiner, T., & Preacher, K. J. (2006). Parental verbal abuse and the mediating role of self-criticism in adult internalizing disorders. Journal of Affective Disorder 93(1-3), 71-78. Doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2006.02.014.

Salzinger, S., Rosario, M., & Feldman, R. S. (2007). Physical Child Abuse and Adolescent Violent Delinquency: The Mediating and Moderating Roles of Personal Relationships. Child Maltreatment 12(3), 208-219. Doi: 10.1177/1077559507301839.

Sebre, S. et al. (2004). Cross-cultural comparisons of child-reported emotional and physical abuse: rates, risk factors and psychosocial symptoms. Child Abuse & Neglect 28(1), 113-127. Doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2003.06.004.

Sedlak, A. J. (1997). Risk Factors for the Occurrence of Child Abuse and Neglect. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma 1(1), 149-186. Doi: 10.1300/J146v01n01_09.

Shackman, J. E., Shackman, A. J., & Pollak, S. D. (2007). Physical abuse amplifies attention to threat and increases anxiety in children. Emotion 7(4), 838-852. Doi: 10.1037/1528-3542.7.4.838.

Sidebotham, P. et al. (2001). Child maltreatment in the “Children of the nineties”: A longitudinal study of parental risk factors. Child Abuse & Neglect 25(9), 1177-1200. Doi: 10.1016/S0145-2134(01)00261-7.

Stith, S. M. et al. (2009). Risk factors in child maltreatment: A meta-analytic review of the literature. Aggression and Violent Behavior 14(1), 13-29. Doi: 10.1016/j.avb.2006.03.006.

Suveg, C., Morelen, D., Brewer, G. A., & Thomassin, K. (2010). The Emotion Dysregulation Model of Anxiety: A preliminary path analytic examination. Journal of Anxiety Disorders 24(8), 924-930. Doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2010.06.018.

Swogger, M. T., You, S., Cashman-Brown, S., & Conner, K. R. (2011). Childhood physical abuse, aggression, and suicide attempts among criminal offenders. Psychiatric Research 185(3), 363-367. Doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2010.07.036.

Titelius, E. N. et al. (2018). Emotion Dysregulation Mediates the Relationship Between Child Maltreatment and Non-Suicidal Self-Injury. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma 27(3), 323-331. Doi: 10.1080/10926771.2017.1338814.

Umeda, M., Kawakami, N., Kessler, R. C., & Miller, E. (2015). Childhood Adversities and Adult Use of Potentially Injurious Physical Discipline in Japan. Journal of Family Violence 30(4), 515-527. Doi: 10.1007/s10896-015-9692-z.

Ullman, S., Peter-Hagene, L., & Relyea, M. (2014). Coping, emotion regulation, and self-blame as mediators of sexual abuse and psychological symptoms in adult sexual assault. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse 23(1), 74-93. Doi: 10.1080/10538712.2014.864747.

Walsh, C., MacMillan, H., & Jamieson, E. (2002). The relationship between parental psychiatric disorder and child physical and sexual abuse: findings from the Ontario Health Supplement. Child Abuse & Neglect 26(1), 11-22. Doi: 10.1016/S0145-2134(01)00308-8.

Watts, S. J. (2017). The Link Between Child Abuse and Neglect and Delinquency: Examining the Mediating Role of Social Bonds. Victims & Offenders: An International Journal of Evidence-based Research, Policy, and Practice 12(5), 700-717. Doi: 10.1080/15564886.2016.1155190.

Wickham, S. & Bentall, R. (2016). Are Specific Early-Life Adversities Associated With Specific Symptoms of Psychosis?: A Patient Study Considering Just World Beliefs as a Mediator. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 204(8), 606-613. Doi: 10.1097/NMD.0000000000000511.

Wilson, L. & Scarpa, A. (2015). Interpersonal Difficulties Mediate the Relationship Between Child Sexual Abuse and Depression Symptoms. Violence and Victims 30(1), 163-176. Doi: 10.1891/0886-6708.VV-D-13-00059.

Wolff, S. et al. (2016). Does Emotion Dysregulation Mediate the Relationship between Early Maltreatment and Later Substance Dependence? Findings of the CANSAS Study. European Addiction Research 22(6), 292-300. Doi: 10.1159/000447397.

Wright, M. O., Crawford, E., & Castillo, D. D. (2009). Childhood emotional maltreatment and later psychological distress among college students: The mediating role of maladaptive schemas. Child Abuse & Neglect 33(1), 59-68. Doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2008.12.007.